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Updates in Group National Global Imaginaries




Inexamining the relation between Marxist historiography and the theoretical
trajectories of postcolonial studies, the problem posed in Marxist theory under
the name of ‘the national question’ remains decisive. This question is always
emerging around the tensions generated between the logic of capital, the
purified circuit-process of capital’s self-unfolding, and the local conditions
of its deployment, typically the modern form of the nation-state. I argue that
the history of the prewar debate on the nature of Japanese capitalism, which
was itself the fundamental locus for the development of Marxist historiography
and theory in Japan, can be a suggestive source of clues for the explication of
this relation. In examining the theoretical problems that inhere in this
historical moment, I attempt to argue that the national question in Marxist
theory can be forcefully renewed through a parallax movement with the question
of the postcolonial, that is, the irreversibility of the history of colonialism
inscribed in the form of the nation-state. In other words, the national
question is not only a question of the levels and stages of capitalist
development in given, apparently stable areas; it is also the question of how
the logic of capital relates to the historico-epistemological production of
‘the national’ itself.



Spivak’s ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ emerged in and helped shape a specific moment in the
development of literary theory in the US, and it continues to challenge Native
American studies in significant ways. Spivak captures in Gramscian terms the
dilemma that scholars and intellectuals from the colonized world face in
positing their work as engaging in meaningful change of the conditions of
colonization. Her reflexive approach becomes most meaningful for Native studies
when the indigenous world is understood as featuring two forms of subalternity,
one focused on economic depravation, the other more focused on the maintenance
of the social and cultural forms of traditional cultural practitioners. The
conclusion focuses on one place where intellectuals meet up with both these
forms of subalternity, an Osage dance society. This is an example of one
setting where subalterns and intellectuals can, in fact, meet each other and

BETWEEN INDIGENEITY AND DIASPORA – Interventions: International Journal of


This essay proposes the category of subalternity as a tool to adjudicate between the
often conflicting claims of diaspora and indigeneity. Written in the context of
two itineraries on the part of the author – one a combined lecture/tourist trip
to Ecuador and the second a talk presented at a symposium on indigeneity and
postcoloniality in Urbana-Champaign – the essay begins by tracking the various
knowledge claims that arise out of the experience of travel. It goes on to
record a travel narrative to an indigenous community in Ecuador in which many
of the concerns of representation, language and political recognition that
colonized communities face are raised. The essay then moves on to a discussion
of the risks of unilaterally privileging either the claims of indigeneity or
the claims of diaspora.

THEGOVERNANCE OF THE PRIOR – Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial


Thisessay asks how critical indigenous theory might intervene in the field of
critical theory. What originates here that does not in other disciplinary
phrasings and phases and cannot without doing some violence to the tasks
indigenous critical theory sets for itself? It begins to answer this question
by introducing a form of liberal governance – the governance of the prior –
that critical indigenous theory illuminates. And it argues that rather than
referencing a specific social content or context, social identity or movement,
critical indigenous theory disrupts a network of presuppositions underpinning
political theory, social theory and humanist ethics (obligation) which are
themselves built upon this form of liberal governance.

TheMetamorphosis of Black Movement Activists into Black Organic Intellectuals


Examinationof the profiles and trajectories of 15 current or past leaders of the Brazilian
Association of Black Researchers points to the emergence in Brazil of a new
category of intellectuals who may be called “black organic
intellectuals”—academics with the marks of black ancestry (such as dark skin)
who have been directly or indirectly influenced by the black social movements
and therefore do not resign themselves to racial prejudice and discrimination
and racial inequalities. The active academic ethos that guides their
professional behavior as university professors leads them to study these
inequalities and to promote policies aimed at racial equality and the
elimination of racism from Brazilian society.

Cosmopolitanism and the Specificity of the Local in World Literature


Taking its cue from recent scholarship de-linking the idea of “modernity” from the
idea of “the West”, this article advocates the notion of “world literature” as
the body of literature that has, in the last 150 to 200 years, registered and
encoded the social logic of modernity. Building on Franco Moretti’s postulation
of a single world-literary system (structured not merely by difference but also
by inequality) and on the theoretical work of Fredric Jameson, the article
traces some of the ways in which the local detail of peripheral modernity is
represented in literary texts by Thomas Mofolo, Patrick Chamoiseau, Lao She,
Rohinton Mistry, Ivan Vladislavic and others, demonstrating that there is no
necessary contradiction between the ideas of the “universal” and the “local” or
the “national”, but that, on the contrary, there are only local universalisms
(and, for that matter, only “local cosmopolitanisms”), which it becomes the
task of readers to situate as completely as they can.

Latin America and the Trans/National Debate: A Conversation Piece – Globalizations


This paper is the result of a conversation, started in 2008, about the significance
of the struggles for gender and sexual justice taking place in Latin America
and more broadly of the challenges global justice and solidarity movements
(GJ&SM) are articulating at various national and international levels. Two
themes are explored throughout: the extent to which the current Latin American
experiments with diversity, plurality, connectivity and mutuality, starting
with the ‘plural concept of gender and sexuality’, challenge existing divides
between gender, sexual, social and economic justice and the extent to which
they simultaneously question the North/South divide. We also reflect on the
problems and challenges that such approaches might present or encounter.

The Uneven Geography of Participation at the Global Level: Ethiopian Women
Activists at…


This article explores the Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA) and its
attempts to translate international women’s rights norms into national law,
examining the problematic geographies of women’s networks from local to global
levels and showing how Ethiopia remains on the periphery of global human rights
networks. In their campaign for legal reform to protect women against violence,
activists had to show how the proposed reforms were ‘African’, as invoking
international human rights risked dismissal as evidence of ‘Westernisation’.
Activists face practical difficulties, including lack of funding and
technology, limiting networking beyond the national level. The article shows
how the state shapes local activists’ ability to form global connections.
Legislation banning civil society organisations such as EWLA from conducting
work around rights threatens to marginalise Ethiopia further from global human
rights networks and norms. Local connectivity to the global is only partial,
mediated by the power relations in which activists and the state are embedded.

Economics, Performativity, and Social Reproduction in Global Development – Globalizations


Over the past decade, international development policy has paid increased attention
to social reproduction. While this offers an improvement over past practices in
which care work was all but ignored, these policy frameworks continue to fall
short of feminist goals. One reason for this is the way that dominant economic
representations of social reproduction continue to rest on a universalizing
portrayal of the household economy and family life as mired in patriarchal
tradition, which fails to capture the diversity of economic and affective
arrangements in which reproductive labor takes place at the local level. In
this paper, I develop an alternative conceptualization of economic and
affective life that challenges dominant understandings of the distinctions
between market and non-market activity, paid and unpaid labor, and work and
intimacy to provide space for new feminist conceptualizations of economy and
care that can capture the diversity of its sites and practices.

Sustainable Development: Problematising Normative Constructions of Gender within Global…


Systems of governance are legitimised as an almost indispensable response to global
co-ordination over matters of environmental degradation. Considering
sustainable development as the key label for ‘common-sense’ political approaches
to environmental degradation and a key informant for international
environmental policy-making activity, this article seeks to problematise such a
widespread discourse as (re)productive of (hetero)sexist power relations. As
such, this article, informed by Foucault’s conceptions of governmentality and
biopower, contends that the global thrust towards sustainable development
projects works to construct identities and discipline power relations with
regard to gender and sexuality. Specifically, I argue that the disciplinary
narratives and apparatuses of international sustainable development initiatives
work to construct gendered identities and naturalise heterosexual relations. To
demonstrate this, this article focuses on the discourses surrounding one of the
most important international documents directed at informing national
environmental policy, Agenda 21.

Gender, Governance and Power: Finding the Global at the Local Level – Globalizations


One of the foundational aims of this journal is to enable articulations of
globalisation other than those conceived of within a narrow, economistic
modality. The articles that comprise this special issue, in our view, make a
timely and innovative contribution to the plurality of analytical insights that
have been published in this journal since its inception. Further, this issue
represents the first issue of Globalizations that, in its entirety, takes
seriously the claim that gender matters to global politics and therefore to
globalisation. Ideas about gender are thoroughly bound up in the processes of
integration, fragmentation, economic restructuring, and im/migration that
characterise the sets of practices and politics described by the short-hand of
‘globalisation’, and in various ways the articles in this collection
interrogate these practices to enrich our understanding of their particular and
more general effects.

‘I went to the City of God’: Gringos, guns and the touristic favela – Journal of
Latin …


A regular tourist destination since the early 1990s, Rocinha – the paradigmatic
touristic favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – has seen the number of foreigners
visitors grow considerably after the successful international release of City
of God in 2003. In dialogue with the new mobilities paradigm and based on a
socio-ethnographic investigation which examines how poverty-stricken and
segregated areas are turned into tourist attractions, the article sheds lights
on the ways tourists who have watched Fernando Meirelles’s film re-interpret
their notion of “the favela” after taking part in organized tours. The aim is
to examine how far these reinterpretations, despite based on first-hand
encounters, are related back to idealized notions that feed upon the cinematic
favela of City of God while giving further legitimacy to it.

“Colonial” and “Postcolonial” Views of Vietnam’s Pre-history


Until recently, northern Vietnam was believed to be a receiver or a loan culture of a
unidirectional diffusion and migration from the advanced Chinese civilization.
By the early 1980s, a new prehistory of northern Vietnam was becoming
increasingly apparent. Yet, new discoveries by both Vietnamese and Western
scholars possess existing biases. Interestingly, as a response to the above,
today’s Western scholars are attempting to “rescue” the
“casualties” of nationalist history in Vietnam. However, it is not clear
whether this new schema would only carve out a topic of expertise for Western
historians or only further marginalize particular Vietnamese nationalist
histories that did not necessarily constrain “independent histories”.

Eco/feminism and rewriting the ending of feminism: From the Chipko movement to Clayoquo…


This article draws on research at an eco/feminist peace camp set up to facilitate
blockades against clear-cut logging in coastal temperate rainforest in
Clayoquot Sound on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, in Canada in the early
1990s. The camp was said to be based on feminist principles and sometimes these
were even articulated as eco/feminist principles. The slippage between these
terms provides a focus for my discussion. Specifically the article explores the
apparent paradox of the sheer vitality of this eco/feminist activism, and in
particular its insistence on international connections, in contrast to the
widely circulating accounts of the end of feminism, and especially the end of
global sisterhood, which emerged in the early 1990s. Thus this article is also
necessarily about how recent histories of eco/feminism, including tensions
between theory and activism, are narrated. I take as a departure point
references to the work of Vandana Shiva and the Chipko movement which
circulated in accounts of the camp, and explore ways in which eco/feminists
might read such utterances as more than evidence of a naive and problematic
universalism. I situate eco/feminism’s internationalism genealogically in
feminism and eco/feminism and read this as a counter-narrative to the ending of
global sisterhood. Through paying attention to various movements, back and
forth, between Clayoquot and Chipko, Canada and India, and drawing on Anna
Tsing’s notion of ‘friction’, I offer an account of what has been at stake in
disavowals of the possibility of reading Chipko as eco/feminist, and suggest
the importance of a more generous reading of eco/feminists’ attention to the
Chipko movement.

European immigration and Continental feminism: Theories of Rosi Braidotti


This article considers the academic writings and activism of the major Continental
feminist philosopher Rosi Braidotti against the background of the growing
religiously and racially biased anti-immigration sentiment in Europe. Special
attention is paid to Braidotti’s recent response to the post-secular turn in
feminism. The article contends that Braidotti’s work highlights and embraces
the destabilising structural effects the intensified migration flows have on
European identity. It argues that Braidotti charts new models of European
subjectivity that would facilitate mutually affirmative and trans-formative
relationships between those (self-)perceived as Western feminists and those
positioned as immigrant women.

‘Most learn almost nothing’: building democratic citizenship by engaging cont…


This article addresses the challenges and pathways of Holocaust education in post-communist countries through two case
studies. I first examine historiographical, institutional and cultural
obstacles to deep and meaningful treatments of the Holocaust within Latvian and
Romanian schools. Drawing upon the unique experiences both countries had with
partial or full ‘dual occupation’ of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, I
present a rationale for constructing inquiry-based Holocaust education
experiences. As Latvia, Romania and other countries have entered the European
Union, the need for tolerant and open-minded citizens who have the ability to
make informed and reasoned decisions for the common good has become more
critical. Inquiry-oriented teaching of the Holocaust brings about essential
democratic skills and dispositions, while simultaneously positioning students
to investigate the complicated, nuanced and contested contours of the
Holocaust, competing forms of propaganda and often spurious historiographical
traditions. This kind of teaching is also responsive to the challenges these
and other societies face when confronting other historical and contemporary
controversial topics.

‘Passing through the Mirror’’: Dead Man, Legal Pluralism and the De-territo…


The failures of Western law in its encounter with indigenous legal orders have been
well documented, but alternative modes of negotiating the encounter remain
under-explored in legal scholarship.The present article addresses this lacuna.
It proceeds from the premise that the journey towards a different
conceptualization of law might be fruitfully re-routed through the affect-laden
realm of embodied experience — the experience of watching the subversive
anti-western film Dead Man. Section II explains and develops a Deleuzian
approach to law and film which involves thinking about film as ‘‘event.’’
Section III considers Dead Man’s relation to the western genre and its
implications for how we think about law’s founding on the frontier. Finally,
the article explores the concept of ‘‘becoming’’ through a consideration of the
relationship between the onscreen journey of the character Bill Blake and the
radical worldview of his poetic namesake.

The Global South – The Matter of Bodies: Materiality on Nalo Hopkinson’s Cybernetic Planet


The black woman’s body in the Americas, and in the global South more generally,
vexes and makes visible different valences of labor: the production of
commodities and the reproduction of bodies that become commodities. Situating
her novel, Midnight Robber (2000), in a speculative future space allusively

linked to Caribbean histories of maroonage and anti-colonial resistance, Nalo Hopkinson
traces the relationship among the black woman’s body, reproduction, production,
and materiality. The physicality of bodies is productively linked to resistance
against the coercive cybernetic strategies of the decentralized artificial
intelligence network (the Nanny web) that biopolitically regulates the
population on its new planetary home of Toussaint. In a final scene that
promises investment in a material economy drawn from local resources and
sustained by a proliferation of resistance narratives featuring a creolized
figure who combines maroonage and carnival tactics, Midnight Robber imagines a
new possibility for living that negotiates between Caribbean localities linked
to material production and mobile, inter-planetary networks linked to discursive

The Woman on the Other Side of the Wall: Archiving the Otherwise in Postcolonial


This article probes a set of problems in the theory and practice of the postcolonial
archive that has emerged as the author and her Indigenous and non-Indigenous
colleagues have struggled to create a new media archive in rural northwest
Australia. This archive does not as yet exist. If it existed as it is currently
conceived, it would organize mixed (augmented) reality media on the basis of
social media and operate it on smart phones. The smart phones would contain a
small segment of the archive, which would be geotagged so that it could not run
unless the phone was proximate to the site to which the information referred.
This article argues that if “archive” is the name we give to the
power to make and command what took place here or there, in this or that place,
and thus what has an authoritative place in the contemporary organization of
social life, the postcolonial new media archive cannot be merely a collection
of digital artifacts reflecting a different, subjugated history. Instead, the
postcolonial archive must directly address the problem of the endurance of the
otherwise within—or distinct from—this form of power.

Anti-Colonial to Anti-Globalization Nationalism: Pepetela’s Angolanidade


This article looks at the relationship between globalization and nationalism through
the eyes of the Angolan novelist Pepetela and his exploration of angolanidade,
Angolan national identity. Two novels are compared: Mayombe, set during the
anti-colonial struggle, and Predadores, set in the era of globalization. The
comparison illustrates how and why the depiction of Angolan nationalism has

African states, global migration, and transformations in citizenship politics – Citizen…


“Over the past three decades, relations between African emigrants and their
home-states have been changing from antagonism to attempts to embrace and
structure emigrant behaviors. This transformation in the conception of
emigration and citizenship has hardly been interrogated by the growing
scholarship on African and global migrations. Three of the most contentious
strategies to extend the frontiers of loyalty of otherwise weak African states,
namely dual citizenship or dual nationality, the right to vote from overseas,
and the right to run for public office by emigrants from foreign locations are
explored. Evidence from a wide range of African emigration states suggests that
these strategies are neither an embrace of the global trend toward
extra-territorialized states and shared citizenship between those at ‘home’ and
others outside the state boundaries, nor are they about national development or
diaspora welfare. Instead, they seem to be strategies to tap into emigrant
resources to enhance weakened state power. The study interrogates the viability
and advisability of emigrant voting and political participation from foreign
locations, stressing their tendency to destabilize homeland political power
structures, undermine the nurturing of effective diaspora mobilization
platforms in both home and host states, and export homeland political practices
to diaspora locations.”

Mononationals, hyphenationals, and shadow-nationals: multiple citizenship as practice -…


“Multiple citizenship has in recent decades moved from an unwanted phenomenon in
international relations to a fairly common transnational status. Multiple
citizenship has nevertheless so far been studied mainly as a political and
juridical status by comparing national legislations. Much less notice has been
given to actual dual citizens’ citizen participation and construction of citizens’
identities. Only when citizenship is studied as these kinds of practices do the
hypothetic possibilities and problems associated with the status get their
meanings and contents. This paper concentrates on examining dual citizens’
identifications to their respective citizenships and how these affiliations
transfer into possible citizen participation. Results are based on extensive
analysis of survey (n = 335) and interviews (n = 48) carried out among dual
citizens living in Finland. Contents and forms of dual citizens’ national
identification and citizen participation were reviewed through ideal types:
resident-mononationals, expatriate-mononationals, hyphenationals, and

Official apologies, reconciliation, and settler colonialism: Australian indigenous alte…


“The burgeoning literature on transitional justice, truth commissions,
reconciliation and official apologies tends to ignore the conditions of settler
states in which ‘reconciliation’ needs to take account of indigenous
minorities. The settler colonialism literature is worth including in the
general discussion because it is exceptionally reflective about political
theory (the constitutional recognition of indigenous rights) and ethnogenesis
(the origin and viability of both settler and indigenous identities),
challenging mainstream liberalism, in particular, to account for difference
beyond platitudes about multiculturalism. This article highlights the
postcolonial critiques of the Australian governments’ apology to the indigenous
peoples of the country. The authors of these critiques seek to protect
indigenous alterity from the Australian state, which they regard as
irredeemably colonialist, especially in its liberal and progressive mode. The
article suggests that Indigenous political agency transcends the
resistance/co-option dichotomy presented in much of the apology’s

Small Axe – Yam, Roots, and Rot: Allegories of the Provision Grounds


“The historical and metaphysical connection between humans and the soil seems to be
of vital significance to the recuperative power associated with the provision
grounds, a relationship I trace by turning to Erna Brodber’s allegorical novel,
The Rainmaker’s Mistake (2007). Drawing upon the work of Sylvia Wynter and
others about the differing plots of the plantation and the provision grounds,
this essay explores how Brodber challenges the plot of plantation narratives
and employs allegory to excavate the roots of the provision grounds,
particularly the figure of the yam. While roots are a generative metaphor for
cultural origins, Brodber demonstrates that decay is the material way in which
we know history has passed and thus is key to the articulation of time and
nature itself, a position with profound implications for the region’s

The Life-Cycle of Transnational Issues: Lessons from the Access to Medicines Controvers…


“Why and how do issues expire? This paper applies the concept of path dependency to
issue-life cycle and argues that the manner in which an issue dies is closely
associated with how it comes to life. This paper argues that, on the Access to
Medicines issue, the first actors (1) to have called attention to a legal
problem, (2) to have capitalised on the HIV/AIDs crisis, and (3) to have used
the example of Africa, were also the first to have felt constrained by their
own frame in their attempt to (1) look for economical rather than legal
solutions, (2) expand the list of medicines covered beyond anti-AIDs drugs, and
(3) allow large emerging economies to benefit from a scheme designed by
countries without manufacturing capacities. In order to escape an issue in
which they felt entrapped, issue-entrepreneurs worked strategically to close
the debate in order to better reframe it in other forums.”

A Historical Materialist Response to the Clash of Civilizations Thesis – Global Society


“This article offers a historical materialist response to the “Clash of
Civilizations” thesis put forth by Samuel Huntington. The thesis has merely
been addressed by critical theorists, let alone Marxists, “en passant”, thereby
overlooking its persistent theoretical influence upon contemporary world
politics. The essay thus seeks to extend historical materialism’s critical
endeavour by theoretically challenging Huntington’s paradigm. It argues that
Huntington’s incoherent form of “civilizational” realism underpins the
theoretical-empirical shortcomings of his thesis. Yet it consciously overlooks
meta-theoretical flaws and follows Huntington’s line of reasoning to challenge
his more compelling arguments.”

Why scholars of minority rights in Asia should recognize the limits of Western
models -…


“This article considers the relationship between ethnic and racial minority rights
and citizenship in Asia. The most ethnically divided and populous region in the
world, Asia is home to some of the most contrasting state responses to ethnic
minority assertions of diversity and difference. Asia is also awash with
wide-ranging claims by geographically-dispersed ethnic minorities to full and
equal citizenship. In exploring the relationship between ethnic minority rights
claims and citizenship in Asia, this article considers the relevance of certain
core assumptions in Western-dominated citizenship theory to Asian experiences.
The aim is to look beyond absolutist West-East and civic-ethnic bifurcations to
consider more constructive questions about what Asian and Western models might
learn from one another in approaching minority citizenship issues.”

Border formations: security and subjectivity at the border – Citizenship Studies


“This paper offers a normative argument for reconfiguring borders that rests on a
critique of intersecting logics bearing on security, incorporation, agency,
subjectivity, encounter, and citizenship. Especially important to my critique
is the mutually reinforcing relationship between border security and prevalent
assimilationist and integrationist forms of incorporation associated with the
dominant single-citizenship model. I offer instead an alternative framing of
incorporation I call enfoldment, which is anchored in the contingent and
negotiated agency and subjectivity of mobile persons and a multiversal
understanding of societies. As I argue, one avenue for opening the
possibilities of migrant agency and subjectivity is via what I term ‘mediated
passage’. It entails shielding migrants and travellers from the direct control
of movement by states at borders, allowing for passage across borders mediated
by civil society organizations possessing independent power and

Half-truths, Errors and Omissions Propel Current Nuclear Revival – Capitalism Nature So…


But with the enormous pressure to expand the current global nuclear fleet of 436
operating reactors to 958 by 2030,9 we don’t hear much about the ongoing
devastation wrought by the Chernobyl accident. A new narrative has taken hold,
one that downplays the health and environmental impacts of Chernobyl and instead
apportions more blame for the health problems of those in the fallout region on
emotional factors like stress, poverty, and bad habits such as a poor diet,
smoking, and drinking too much.

Utopian Cosmopolitanism and the Conscious Pariah: Harare, Ramallah, Cairo


“This article entertains the possibility that new, locally-embedded cosmopolitanisms,
critical of the violence inflicted by various forms of colonialism and
globalization, are not just a matter of locus, or location, or topos, but also a
question of the utopian. I begin with some autobiographically based
observations related to a certain barely-documented social formation I
witnessed as a young woman in colonial Rhodesia, and develop the scope of
analysis by relating the notion of utopian solidarity among pariahs to cultural
imaginings of three differently cosmopolitan cities. It will be proposed that
what is at stake in defining utopian cosmopolitanism is a certain cultural
metaphori city (a term that will be gradually explicated), encapsulated here in
the process of tracing submerged similarities in the cultural histories of
Harare, Ramallah and Cairo, and engaging with the work of Dambudzo Marechera,
Mourid Barghouti, Alaa Al Aswany and Ahdaf Soueif.”

Local Cosmopolitans in Colonial West Africa


“Historians of imperialism and postcolonial literary scholars have inherited a series of
derogatory categories from colonial discourse, labels that were kept firmly in
place by local elites in their anti-colonial cultural nationalism. In
particular, in the colonial period the category of “mimic” was frequently used
to keep distinctive social classes (and also ethnic groups) out of the
political sphere. By continuing to recognize and debate mimicry, we indirectly
inherit this negative bias. This article debates the ways in which cosmopolitan
theory can help us to see the ambivalent mimic-man in a slightly different
light from received opinion. If we re-classify colonial “mimics” as
cosmopolitans or, more accurately, as local cosmopolitans, an array of new
cultural and historical questions comes to the fore highlighting the
relationships between elites and sub-elites, and the politics of representation
in local contexts.”

The Politics of Autonomy of Indigenous Peoples of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Col…


This paper focuses on the demands for autonomy of the Kogui, Arhuaco, Wiwa and
Kankwamo peoples of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta with regard to control
over their territories, self-determination, indigenous legal jurisdiction,
management of the environment, food sovereignty, and political control through
their own authorities. The main argument is that the autonomy of indigenous
peoples is being influenced by the current context of local, national and
international conflicts and other specific circumstances in the region in such
a way as to require viewing autonomy as a complex process that transcends
national and supranational legal frameworks. Indigenous autonomy is articulated
within local, national and international dynamics and within processes of
recognition of, and disregard for, indigenous rights – obliging us to
understand it as a relational indigenous autonomy. It is relational because it
is expressed in different ways depending on the interactions among different
social actors and the specificities of the historical contexts.

Amerindian ante-coloniality in contemporary Caribbean writing: Crossing borders with Ja…


When speaking of the Caribbean, one often finds it difficult to reconcile the
singular term used to refer to it and its linguistic, social, historical and
aesthetic plurality. Even if the archipelago has shared similar experiences of
traumatic transportation and indentureship, the specificities of each island
have hindered the emergence of a shared Caribbean identity. Emphasis has been
put on the extinction of the indigenous Amerindian peoples, but Amerindian
resilience has not been granted sufficient scope. Only a few writers have
chosen to imaginatively return to that Amerindian past that precedes the trauma
of forced transportation – a past that has almost receded out of collective
memory, dominated as it has been by the African dimension. In the wake of
Wilson Harris, Pauline Melville is one of the writers who have been trying to
gain access to a collective identity that might be termed ante-colonial. With
reference to the work of Melville, Jan Carew and Cyril Dabydeen, this article
reads the presence of Amerindian culture in Caribbean literature as a renewed
symbol of resistance to domination and a symbol of a shared identity, providing
a stronger bond between the land and the people. It argues that this dtour
through Amerindian culture finds its meaning in the desire to override colonial
dispossession, thus providing a possible focal point of connection for the
Caribbean at large.

The end(s) of national cultures? Cultural policy in the face of diversity – Internation…


This paper analyses the impact of cultural diversity on cultural policies through an
international overview of case studies and reflections. Cultural diversity is
generally perceived as a threat toward national cultures. However, this paper
argues that (1) there exist substantial national differences in the way in
which diversity is perceived and integrated as a policy paradigm; and (2)
cultural diversity can be used as an instrument for reconfiguring cultural
policies, regardless of the governmental level in question. The authors discuss
whether cultural policies of diversity exist and what they are. They also
examine the practical consequences of the emergence of a new paradigm
concerning the redefinition and implementation of cultural policies within a
triple context: the plurality of the territorial configurations of diversity,
the simultaneous coexistence of several levels of understanding this issue, and
the economic dimensions of cultural diversity.

Shared understandings, collective autonomy, and global equality Armstrong


Abstract The political theorist Michael Walzer has usually been taken as an opponent of
global distributive justice, on the basis that it is incompatible with
collective autonomy, would endanger cultural diversity, or simply on the basis
that principles of global distributive justice cannot be coherently envisaged,
given cross-cultural disagreement about the nature and value of the social
goods that might be distributed. However in his recent work, Walzer
demonstrates a surprising degree of sympathy for the claims of global
distributive justice, even of the egalitarian variety. But the precise contours
of his current position on global equality are not yet clearly developed. The
paper, therefore, attempts to reconstruct what that position might be, paying
particular attention to the conclusions we could draw firstly for our
understanding of the opposition between global equality and national
self-determination (which is more complex than has sometimes been thought), and
secondly for the relationship between global equality and shared

Bringing capital back in: a materialist turn in postcolonial studies? – Inter-Asia Cultura…


‘Bringing Capital Back In’ is the title I have chosen for my article. The reference to a
quite famous and successful book edited by Peter B. Evans, Dietrich
Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol in 1985 is justified in my eyes by some formal
similarities between their research project and the one I would like to outline
here. As Theda Skocpol wrote in her introduction to that book (Bringing the
State Back In), ‘society-centered theories’ in comparative social sciences and
history were giving way in the early 1980s to a ‘new interest for the state’
(Evans et al. 1985: 4f). The ‘new theoretical understanding of states in
relation to social structures’ she and her co-editors were looking for could
not nevertheless emerge from a step back with regard to ‘society-centered
theories’ (Evans et al. 1985: 4f).

Multiculture and Community in New City Spaces – Journal of Intercultural Studies


Convention suggests that multicultural areas tend to exhibit high levels of residential
and educational segregation, high degrees of poverty and deprivation and low
rates of contact between culturally distinct individuals and groups. By
contrast, with the help of a case study of a fast growing English new town,
this paper reflects on the experience of multicultural settlement in what might
be described as an ordinary city: one in which that experience is relatively
recent and whose identity is constantly in the process of being made and
remade. It draws on qualitative research, based around semi-structured
interviews, participant observation and the use of focus groups, to develop its
conclusions. Moving beyond any notion that minority ethnic communities live
‘parallel lives’, the paper identifies and explores some of the ways in which
the new city spaces of Milton Keynes are actively lived, negotiated and
understood by the Ghanaian and Somali communities (and particularly by young
people from those communities). It highlights the tensions between the ways in
which difference is negotiated in practice and attempts to define communities
through processes of governance.

Literature is language: An interview with Amara Lakhous – Journal of Postcolonial Writing


Amara Lakhous, born and raised in Algeria, has had a significant impact on the
changing landscape of contemporary Italian letters and cultural production. He
is the author of three novels, all of which he has written in both Arabic and
Italian. His best known work is the much-acclaimed Scontro di civilt per un
ascensore a piazza Vittorio (2006)/Clash of Civilizations Over an Elevator in
Piazza Vittorio (2008), now translated into numerous languages, including
French, German and Dutch. Lakhous draws on his position as cultural mediator to
elucidate the importance of fiction in today’s contentious debates over
national identities. In the following interview, he speaks about his
relationship to Arabic, Berber and Italian and the place these languages occupy
in the conceptualization of his works. He also discusses the craft of writing,
irony, politics, his views on Italy and Algeria today, and his latest novel,
published in 2010.

Intentional and unintentional transnationalism: Two political identities repressed by nati…


This article explores how the powerful mechanisms of nation-state discourse in the
news media obscure emerging constructions of transnational political thought
and action. With the aid of empirical examples from qualitative media studies
on critical events extensively covered by the news media, the article demonstrates
how national identity in the news media represses transnational political
identities of the intentional as well as the unintentional kind.

Extreme right-wing vote and support for multiculturalism in Europe – Ethnic and Racial Stu…


While Europe is unifying, it is also becoming more diverse, making multiculturalism
one of the most hotly debated political issues in Western Europe. Minority
citizens occupy an important place in the landscape of this challenging issue.
Using the Eurobarometer 53 survey of European citizens, I look at the gap
between Europeans who claim minority heritage and those who do not in support
for multiculturalism in fifteen European Union member nations, taking into
account percentage of extreme right-wing vote. This contextual factor has a
persistent significant effect on the difference between minority and
non-minority attitudes. High levels of support for extreme right-wing parties
may have a polarizing effect, heightening awareness of personal heritage and
making ethnic identity more salient in attitudes towards multiculturalism. This
suggests an extension of group threat theory in which conceptions of what
constitutes both a group and a threat can be created at the level of discourse

Latin American Research Review – Our Indians in Our America: Anti-Imperialist Imperialism …


Indigenous peoples have been used and imagined as guardians of the Brazilian frontier
since at least the mid-nineteenth century. This association was central to the
foundation of the Indian Protection Service (Serviço de Proteção aos Índios, or
SPI) during the early 1900s and culminated with the Amazonian Vigilance System
(Sistema de Vigelância da Amazônia, or SIVAM) at the turn of the millennium.
Throughout the period, the abiding desire to establish defensive dominion over
disputed national territory subjected individuals and groups identified as
“Indians” to the power of overlapping discourses of scientific
progress, national security, and economic development. A trinity of Brazilian
modernity, these goals interpellated native peoples primarily through the
practice and rhetoric of education, which grounds their historical relationship
with dominant national society. Drawing on SPI records, government documents,
journalism, personal testimonies, and visual media, this article traces the
impact of this modernist trinity on indigenist policy and in the lives of those
who have been affected by its tutelary power. By transforming private
indigenous spaces into public domain, Brazil’s politics of anti-imperialist
imperialism propagated a colonialist, metonymic relationship between “our
Indians” and “our America” into the twenty-first century.

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society – States of White Igno…


Drawing upon recent literature on what has been called “epistemologies of
ignorance” in relation to race, this paper examines an audit of a research
project on equality and diversity in a UK university. It argues the audit
functioned as a technology of ignorance. This paper suggests that the audit drew
upon the cultural associations between white male academic masculinity with
notions of quantification, detachment, and disembodied aggression. In this way,
ignorance is seen as a form of labor. In particular, this paper suggests that
current forms of neoliberal audit in UK universities could be understood in
terms of Haraway’s notion of scientific gentlemanly modest witnessing. But
rather than the scientific gentlemanly masculinity, neoliberal audit
legitimates a hyper-rational audit masculinity which casts women and racialized
minorities as subjective, interested, and emotional and in so doing performs
epistemic violence which maintains whiteness.


Greg Lynn: New City:: “Is a sphere the optimal shape for our world? If physical laws were no longer a concern, how would we mold the Earth to better suit our global economy?”

in Collaboration with Imaginary Forces

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